Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/wwwglob/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JApplicationHelper::getPath() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/wwwglob/public_html/libraries/joomla/application/component/helper.php on line 168

Strict Standards: Non-static method JRequest::getCmd() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/wwwglob/public_html/libraries/joomla/application/helper.php on line 112

Strict Standards: Non-static method JRequest::getVar() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/wwwglob/public_html/libraries/joomla/environment/request.php on line 255

Strict Standards: Non-static method JRequest::_cleanVar() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/wwwglob/public_html/libraries/joomla/environment/request.php on line 134

Strict Standards: Non-static method JFilterInput::getInstance() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/wwwglob/public_html/libraries/joomla/environment/request.php on line 577

Strict Standards: Non-static method JApplicationHelper::_checkPath() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/wwwglob/public_html/libraries/joomla/application/helper.php on line 133

Strict Standards: Non-static method JDispatcher::getInstance() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/wwwglob/public_html/libraries/joomla/application/application.php on line 511

Strict Standards: Non-static method JFactory::getApplication() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/wwwglob/public_html/plugins/system/shsef.php on line 295

Strict Standards: Non-static method JFactory::getApplication() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/wwwglob/public_html/plugins/system/shsef.php on line 341

Strict Standards: Non-static method shRouter::shGetConfig() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/wwwglob/public_html/plugins/system/shsef.php on line 343

Strict Standards: Non-static method JFactory::getDocument() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/wwwglob/public_html/plugins/system/shsef.php on line 309

Strict Standards: Non-static method JString::ltrim() should not be called statically in /home/wwwglob/public_html/administrator/components/com_sh404sef/sh404sef.class.php on line 695

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/wwwglob/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JString::ltrim() should not be called statically in /home/wwwglob/public_html/administrator/components/com_sh404sef/sh404sef.class.php on line 696

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/wwwglob/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JString::ltrim() should not be called statically in /home/wwwglob/public_html/administrator/components/com_sh404sef/sh404sef.class.php on line 698

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/wwwglob/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JString::ltrim() should not be called statically in /home/wwwglob/public_html/administrator/components/com_sh404sef/sh404sef.class.php on line 699

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/wwwglob/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method shRouter::shPageInfo() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/wwwglob/public_html/plugins/system/shsef.php on line 315

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/wwwglob/public_html/administrator/components/com_sh404sef/helpers/autoloader.php on line 95

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::load() should not be called statically in /home/wwwglob/public_html/administrator/components/com_sh404sef/helpers/autoloader.php on line 106

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/wwwglob/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 138

Strict Standards: Non-static method shRouter::shGetConfig() should not be called statically in /home/wwwglob/public_html/administrator/components/com_sh404sef/helpers/shurl.php on line 19

Strict Standards: Non-static method shRouter::shPageInfo() should not be called statically in /home/wwwglob/public_html/administrator/components/com_sh404sef/helpers/shurl.php on line 21

Strict Standards: Non-static method JFactory::getDocument() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/wwwglob/public_html/includes/application.php on line 135

Strict Standards: Non-static method JFactory::getUser() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/wwwglob/public_html/includes/application.php on line 136

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/wwwglob/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JFactory::getSession() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/wwwglob/public_html/libraries/joomla/factory.php on line 163

Strict Standards: Non-static method JRequest::getCmd() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/wwwglob/public_html/includes/application.php on line 152

Strict Standards: Non-static method JRequest::getVar() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/wwwglob/public_html/libraries/joomla/environment/request.php on line 255

Strict Standards: Non-static method JRequest::_cleanVar() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/wwwglob/public_html/libraries/joomla/environment/request.php on line 151

Strict Standards: Non-static method JFilterInput::getInstance() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/wwwglob/public_html/libraries/joomla/environment/request.php on line 577

Strict Standards: Non-static method JFactory::getConfig() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/wwwglob/public_html/libraries/joomla/application/application.php on line 394

Strict Standards: Non-static method JFactory::getConfig() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/wwwglob/public_html/libraries/joomla/application/application.php on line 394

Strict Standards: Non-static method JFilterInput::clean() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/wwwglob/public_html/libraries/joomla/document/html/html.php on line 221

Strict Standards: Non-static method JFilterInput::clean() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/wwwglob/public_html/libraries/joomla/document/html/html.php on line 222

Strict Standards: Non-static method JFactory::getLanguage() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/wwwglob/public_html/libraries/joomla/document/html/html.php on line 237

Strict Standards: Non-static method JRegistryFormat::getInstance() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/wwwglob/public_html/libraries/joomla/registry/registry.php on line 373

Strict Standards: Non-static method JFilterInput::clean() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/wwwglob/public_html/libraries/joomla/registry/format.php on line 45

Strict Standards: Non-static method JURI::base() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/wwwglob/public_html/libraries/joomla/document/html/html.php on line 242

Strict Standards: Non-static method JFactory::getConfig() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/wwwglob/public_html/libraries/joomla/application/application.php on line 394

Strict Standards: Non-static method JURI::base() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/wwwglob/public_html/libraries/joomla/document/html/html.php on line 353

Strict Standards: Non-static method JUtility::parseAttributes() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/wwwglob/public_html/libraries/joomla/document/html/html.php on line 382

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::load() should not be called statically in /home/wwwglob/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 161

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/wwwglob/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 138

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::load() should not be called statically in /home/wwwglob/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 161

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/wwwglob/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 138

Strict Standards: Non-static method JModuleHelper::getModules() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/wwwglob/public_html/libraries/joomla/document/html/renderer/modules.php on line 40

Strict Standards: Non-static method JModuleHelper::_load() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/wwwglob/public_html/libraries/joomla/application/module/helper.php on line 88

Strict Standards: Non-static method JRequest::getBool() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/wwwglob/public_html/libraries/joomla/application/module/helper.php on line 97

Strict Standards: Non-static method JRequest::getVar() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/wwwglob/public_html/libraries/joomla/environment/request.php on line 217

Strict Standards: Non-static method JRequest::_cleanVar() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/wwwglob/public_html/libraries/joomla/environment/request.php on line 151

Strict Standards: Non-static method JFilterInput::getInstance() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/wwwglob/public_html/libraries/joomla/environment/request.php on line 577

Strict Standards: Non-static method JUtility::parseAttributes() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/wwwglob/public_html/libraries/joomla/document/html/html.php on line 382

Strict Standards: Non-static method JModuleHelper::getModules() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/wwwglob/public_html/libraries/joomla/document/html/renderer/modules.php on line 40

Strict Standards: Non-static method JModuleHelper::_load() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/wwwglob/public_html/libraries/joomla/application/module/helper.php on line 88

Strict Standards: Non-static method JRequest::getBool() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/wwwglob/public_html/libraries/joomla/application/module/helper.php on line 97

Strict Standards: Non-static method JRequest::getVar() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/wwwglob/public_html/libraries/joomla/environment/request.php on line 217

Strict Standards: Non-static method JRequest::_cleanVar() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/wwwglob/public_html/libraries/joomla/environment/request.php on line 151

Strict Standards: Non-static method JFilterInput::getInstance() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/wwwglob/public_html/libraries/joomla/environment/request.php on line 577

Strict Standards: Non-static method JUtility::parseAttributes() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/wwwglob/public_html/libraries/joomla/document/html/html.php on line 382

Strict Standards: Non-static method JModuleHelper::getModules() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/wwwglob/public_html/libraries/joomla/document/html/renderer/modules.php on line 40

Strict Standards: Non-static method JModuleHelper::_load() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/wwwglob/public_html/libraries/joomla/application/module/helper.php on line 88

Strict Standards: Non-static method JFactory::getUser() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/wwwglob/public_html/libraries/joomla/document/html/renderer/module.php on line 63

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/wwwglob/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JFactory::getSession() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/wwwglob/public_html/libraries/joomla/factory.php on line 163

Strict Standards: Non-static method JFactory::getConfig() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/wwwglob/public_html/libraries/joomla/document/html/renderer/module.php on line 64

Strict Standards: Non-static method JRegistryFormat::getInstance() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/wwwglob/public_html/libraries/joomla/registry/registry.php on line 373

Strict Standards: Non-static method JFilterInput::clean() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/wwwglob/public_html/libraries/joomla/registry/format.php on line 45

Strict Standards: Non-static method JModuleHelper::renderModule() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/wwwglob/public_html/libraries/joomla/document/html/renderer/module.php on line 84

Strict Standards: Non-static method JFactory::getConfig() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/wwwglob/public_html/libraries/joomla/application/application.php on line 394

Strict Standards: Non-static method JRegistryFormat::getInstance() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/wwwglob/public_html/libraries/joomla/registry/registry.php on line 373

Strict Standards: Non-static method JFilterInput::clean() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/wwwglob/public_html/libraries/joomla/registry/format.php on line 45

Strict Standards: Non-static method JFactory::getLanguage() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/wwwglob/public_html/libraries/joomla/application/module/helper.php on line 168

Strict Standards: Non-static method JRegistryFormat::getInstance() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/wwwglob/public_html/libraries/joomla/registry/registry.php on line 373

Strict Standards: Non-static method JFilterInput::clean() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/wwwglob/public_html/libraries/joomla/registry/format.php on line 45

Strict Standards: Non-static method JRequest::getBool() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/wwwglob/public_html/libraries/joomla/application/module/helper.php on line 199

Strict Standards: Non-static method JRequest::getVar() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/wwwglob/public_html/libraries/joomla/environment/request.php on line 217

Strict Standards: Non-static method JRequest::_cleanVar() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/wwwglob/public_html/libraries/joomla/environment/request.php on line 151

Strict Standards: Non-static method JFilterInput::getInstance() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/wwwglob/public_html/libraries/joomla/environment/request.php on line 577

Strict Standards: Non-static method JFactory::getUser() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/wwwglob/public_html/libraries/joomla/document/html/renderer/module.php on line 63

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/wwwglob/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JFactory::getSession() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/wwwglob/public_html/libraries/joomla/factory.php on line 163

Strict Standards: Non-static method JFactory::getConfig() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/wwwglob/public_html/libraries/joomla/document/html/renderer/module.php on line 64

Strict Standards: Non-static method JRegistryFormat::getInstance() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/wwwglob/public_html/libraries/joomla/registry/registry.php on line 373

Strict Standards: Non-static method JFilterInput::clean() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/wwwglob/public_html/libraries/joomla/registry/format.php on line 45

Strict Standards: Non-static method JModuleHelper::renderModule() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/wwwglob/public_html/libraries/joomla/document/html/renderer/module.php on line 84

Strict Standards: Non-static method JFactory::getConfig() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/wwwglob/public_html/libraries/joomla/application/application.php on line 394

Strict Standards: Non-static method JRegistryFormat::getInstance() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/wwwglob/public_html/libraries/joomla/registry/registry.php on line 373

Strict Standards: Non-static method JFilterInput::clean() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/wwwglob/public_html/libraries/joomla/registry/format.php on line 45

Strict Standards: Non-static method JFactory::getLanguage() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/wwwglob/public_html/libraries/joomla/application/module/helper.php on line 168

Strict Standards: Non-static method JRequest::getBool() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/wwwglob/public_html/libraries/joomla/application/module/helper.php on line 199

Strict Standards: Non-static method JRequest::getVar() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/wwwglob/public_html/libraries/joomla/environment/request.php on line 217

Strict Standards: Non-static method JRequest::_cleanVar() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/wwwglob/public_html/libraries/joomla/environment/request.php on line 151

Strict Standards: Non-static method JFilterInput::getInstance() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/wwwglob/public_html/libraries/joomla/environment/request.php on line 577

Strict Standards: Non-static method JFactory::getUser() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/wwwglob/public_html/libraries/joomla/document/html/renderer/module.php on line 63

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/wwwglob/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JFactory::getSession() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/wwwglob/public_html/libraries/joomla/factory.php on line 163

Strict Standards: Non-static method JFactory::getConfig() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/wwwglob/public_html/libraries/joomla/document/html/renderer/module.php on line 64

Strict Standards: Non-static method JRegistryFormat::getInstance() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/wwwglob/public_html/libraries/joomla/registry/registry.php on line 373

Strict Standards: Non-static method JFilterInput::clean() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/wwwglob/public_html/libraries/joomla/registry/format.php on line 45

Strict Standards: Non-static method JModuleHelper::renderModule() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/wwwglob/public_html/libraries/joomla/document/html/renderer/module.php on line 84

Strict Standards: Non-static method JFactory::getConfig() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/wwwglob/public_html/libraries/joomla/application/application.php on line 394

Strict Standards: Non-static method JRegistryFormat::getInstance() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/wwwglob/public_html/libraries/joomla/registry/registry.php on line 373

Strict Standards: Non-static method JFilterInput::clean() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/wwwglob/public_html/libraries/joomla/registry/format.php on line 45

Strict Standards: Non-static method JRequest::getBool() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/wwwglob/public_html/libraries/joomla/application/module/helper.php on line 199

Strict Standards: Non-static method JRequest::getVar() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/wwwglob/public_html/libraries/joomla/environment/request.php on line 217

Strict Standards: Non-static method JRequest::_cleanVar() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/wwwglob/public_html/libraries/joomla/environment/request.php on line 151

Strict Standards: Non-static method JFilterInput::getInstance() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/wwwglob/public_html/libraries/joomla/environment/request.php on line 577

Strict Standards: Non-static method JUtility::parseAttributes() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/wwwglob/public_html/libraries/joomla/document/html/html.php on line 382

Strict Standards: Non-static method JModuleHelper::getModules() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/wwwglob/public_html/libraries/joomla/document/html/renderer/modules.php on line 40

Strict Standards: Non-static method JModuleHelper::_load() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/wwwglob/public_html/libraries/joomla/application/module/helper.php on line 88

Strict Standards: Non-static method JFactory::getUser() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/wwwglob/public_html/libraries/joomla/document/html/renderer/module.php on line 63

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/wwwglob/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JFactory::getSession() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/wwwglob/public_html/libraries/joomla/factory.php on line 163

Strict Standards: Non-static method JFactory::getConfig() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/wwwglob/public_html/libraries/joomla/document/html/renderer/module.php on line 64

Strict Standards: Non-static method JRegistryFormat::getInstance() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/wwwglob/public_html/libraries/joomla/registry/registry.php on line 373

Strict Standards: Non-static method JFilterInput::clean() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/wwwglob/public_html/libraries/joomla/registry/format.php on line 45

Strict Standards: Non-static method JModuleHelper::renderModule() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/wwwglob/public_html/libraries/joomla/document/html/renderer/module.php on line 84

Strict Standards: Non-static method JFactory::getConfig() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/wwwglob/public_html/libraries/joomla/application/application.php on line 394

Strict Standards: Non-static method JRegistryFormat::getInstance() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/wwwglob/public_html/libraries/joomla/registry/registry.php on line 373

Strict Standards: Non-static method JFilterInput::clean() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/wwwglob/public_html/libraries/joomla/registry/format.php on line 45

Strict Standards: Non-static method JFactory::getLanguage() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/wwwglob/public_html/libraries/joomla/application/module/helper.php on line 168

Strict Standards: Non-static method JRegistryFormat::getInstance() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/wwwglob/public_html/libraries/joomla/registry/registry.php on line 373

Strict Standards: Non-static method JFilterInput::clean() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/wwwglob/public_html/libraries/joomla/registry/format.php on line 45

Strict Standards: Non-static method JRequest::getBool() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/wwwglob/public_html/libraries/joomla/application/module/helper.php on line 199

Strict Standards: Non-static method JRequest::getVar() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/wwwglob/public_html/libraries/joomla/environment/request.php on line 217

Strict Standards: Non-static method JRequest::_cleanVar() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/wwwglob/public_html/libraries/joomla/environment/request.php on line 151

Strict Standards: Non-static method JFilterInput::getInstance() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/wwwglob/public_html/libraries/joomla/environment/request.php on line 577

Strict Standards: Non-static method JFactory::getUser() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/wwwglob/public_html/libraries/joomla/document/html/renderer/module.php on line 63

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/wwwglob/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JFactory::getSession() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/wwwglob/public_html/libraries/joomla/factory.php on line 163

Strict Standards: Non-static method JFactory::getConfig() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/wwwglob/public_html/libraries/joomla/document/html/renderer/module.php on line 64

Strict Standards: Non-static method JRegistryFormat::getInstance() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/wwwglob/public_html/libraries/joomla/registry/registry.php on line 373

Strict Standards: Non-static method JFilterInput::clean() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/wwwglob/public_html/libraries/joomla/registry/format.php on line 45

Strict Standards: Non-static method JModuleHelper::renderModule() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/wwwglob/public_html/libraries/joomla/document/html/renderer/module.php on line 84

Strict Standards: Non-static method JFactory::getConfig() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/wwwglob/public_html/libraries/joomla/application/application.php on line 394

Strict Standards: Non-static method JRegistryFormat::getInstance() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/wwwglob/public_html/libraries/joomla/registry/registry.php on line 373

Strict Standards: Non-static method JFilterInput::clean() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/wwwglob/public_html/libraries/joomla/registry/format.php on line 45

Strict Standards: Non-static method JFactory::getLanguage() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/wwwglob/public_html/libraries/joomla/application/module/helper.php on line 168

Strict Standards: Non-static method JRegistryFormat::getInstance() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/wwwglob/public_html/libraries/joomla/registry/registry.php on line 373

Strict Standards: Non-static method JFilterInput::clean() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/wwwglob/public_html/libraries/joomla/registry/format.php on line 45

Strict Standards: Non-static method JRequest::getBool() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/wwwglob/public_html/libraries/joomla/application/module/helper.php on line 199

Strict Standards: Non-static method JRequest::getVar() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/wwwglob/public_html/libraries/joomla/environment/request.php on line 217

Strict Standards: Non-static method JRequest::_cleanVar() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/wwwglob/public_html/libraries/joomla/environment/request.php on line 151

Strict Standards: Non-static method JFilterInput::getInstance() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/wwwglob/public_html/libraries/joomla/environment/request.php on line 577

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Chapter 5: AIDS Facts and Myths - Questions People Ask - AIDS Video FORUM

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Chapter 5: AIDS Facts and Myths - Questions People Ask - AIDS Video

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The Truth About AIDS - free book

Note: This chapter of The Truth about AIDS by Dr Patrick Dixon is the original text as published by Kingsway in 1994 updated 2002 and may be reproduced with acknowledgment.

 


 

Symptoms of HIV and AIDS - worried about yourself or someone you love?

Dr Patrick Dixon explains about HIV symptoms: what happens when someone is infected with HIV. Early symptoms of AIDS. Risks of transmission? Why some people get infected with HIV and not others. Dr Dixon is a physician and founder of the international AIDS agency ACET, with prevention and care programmes in many of the poorest nations. He is also Chairman of Global Change Ltd - future trends.

 


Q. ´How is AIDS caught?

 

You cannot catch AIDS. You acquire infection with HIV, the virus which after several years can produce the condition we call AIDS. The virus is spread almost entirely through sex and sharing needles or syringes. Other routes are extremely rare, except infection through untested blood in some developing countries, broken or faulty equipment, or inadequate supplies of reagents. Spreading the virus through normal social contact is unknown. The risk from kissing is very, very low indeed.

Vaginal, oral, or anal sex can transmit the virus from a man to a woman and a woman to a man. Oral (orogenital) or anal sex also transmits in both directions from man to man, and oral sex from woman to woman. Other sexually-transmitted diseases will make infection more likely. Wherever sores (which may be hidden and painless) or pus are, there the virus will be in large amounts. These areas are also entry points.

Tears, saliva and urine do contain virus, but almost always in tiny amounts. The amount is greatly increased by eye, mouth, or urine infection. White cells in saliva carry the virus in up to nine out of ten people with AIDS. The virus needs to enter the body to cause infection. Swallowed virus particles are kept first in the mouth by gum and cheek linings, and do not enter the blood unless you have mouth sores or cracked lips, then in the continuous pipe we call the gut. They are destroyed by stomach acid. They cannot enter the blood once they enter the stomach. Virus particles inside your gut tubing are no more a part of your body than a plastic bead pushed up your nose. (See question on communion cup below.) Urine will not usually contain much virus unless there is a urine infection.

With the exception of sweat, all other secretions from the body may contain virus---especially from wounds. The virus cannot enter the body through the skin unless you have a wound, a rash, or some other cracked area on your skin. The most vulnerable place for this is your hands. Gloves are the best protection.

If you are going to `take a risk', a condom will reduce the risk. Condoms do not give you safe sex. It is safer, true, and condom use reduces your risk enormously if properly carried out. Injecting drugs with a shared needle is dangerous. Non-injected drugs including alcohol may impair judgement and make risks more likely. Poppers may directly damage the immune system, as may other drugs.

Safe sex means one thing: for two people who are currently uninfected to enter into an exclusive faithful relationship for life, with neither injecting drugs with shared needles. The trouble is you may never know. If someone wants to sleep with you that badly he or she may never tell you about previous risks or a drug habit.

Q. ´Should I take the test?

Remember that it is no good turning up at the STD clinic or your family doctor the day after you have taken a risk. You need to wait at least six weeks, ideally three months, for your blood to have time to become positive if you are infected. During this time you must not be in any further risky situations.

Why are you wanting the test? Are you ready for a positive result and all that could mean? Who would you tell? Could you keep it a secret? Remember it could result in a strong reaction against you from people who know. Will you be able to live with that? Are you sure your family doctor will be able to prevent the result from leaking out? It has happened before. Is the receptionist going to know? Are they discreet? A positive result could prevent you from getting a mortgage and will prevent you getting life insurance cover. People should think through these issues, with professional help. It is often easier to change behaviour after a test result. Tests save lives and allow treatment. We should encourage people to get tested.

Some church leaders in high incidence nations are insisting that engaged couples get tested before they can be married. This seems to me to go beyond traditional Christian teaching. But the fact is that tests save lives. And anyone who loves his or her partner will want to be tested if they have been at risk. How terrible to kill the one you love, through fear of finding out the truth. A positive result carries huge implications for life.

Q. ´How accurate is testing for HIV?

HIV testing is now very accurate, but it is important to realise that HIV tests need repeating and can occasionally be wrong. There are two main ways of testing for HIV: indirect and direct. Because HIV is so small and difficult to find in the body, the cheapest and simplest way to detect infection is to look for antibodies that people make to fight the virus. These are very specific to HIV, like a spanner shaped to fit a nut.

The most widely-used test is called ELISA. Results are usually confirmed using a second test called Western Blot, but can be confirmed in some cases by a second slightly different ELISA test. In most cases the antibodies can be detected after about six to eight weeks from the time of infection. In newborn babies there is an added difficulty because the test is confused by the presence of maternal antibodies until around the first year of life. That's why all babies of mothers with HIV test positive for several months - even though most do not have HIV.

The first ELISA tests were not as accurate as the ones today, with higher false positive results. There is some evidence that malaria antibodies may have produced a significant number of false positives in some African countries in the mid-1980s, and that the tests were also muddled by other infections. However, the tests are now much more specific, although it is true that if someone has HIV infection, the antibodies against HIV can produce a false positive result when testing for malaria.

ELISA is designed to be ultra-sensitive, picking up every person with HIV antibodies, but the more sensitive the test, the more likely it is to react positively to other things. In a population where the level of infection is very low, up to 70% of all those testing positive with the ELISA tests will turn out to be negative when the ELISA is repeated. Proportions vary with the exact tests used.

An initial false positive result can be caused by many things. For example, recent vaccination against influenza will produce a positive ELISA test in around 1% of uninfected people. Hepatitis B vaccine can also confuse the test. In almost every case, these incorrect results are sorted out by a Western Blot, which is highly specific to HIV. In many countries second or even third tests are carried out on the same sample so that false positives are eliminated immediately. If you wish further technical detail, read on, otherwise skip to the next question.

In the Western Blot test, virus building blocks are made in the laboratory. A number of different fragments of viruses are separated and `blotted' onto a special surface which is then cut into strips and exposed to the serum sample. Core proteins (p24, p55 and p17) and envelope proteins (gp120, gp160 and gp41) are used. People with HIV tend to produce antibodies to all these bits of HIV. When serum is added to the membrane, together with special markers, you can see a series of colour bands where anti-HIV antibodies have reacted.

A person is only diagnosed as HIV-infected using Western Blot if antibodies are found to at least two of the bands p24, gp41 and gp120/160. Depending on the population group, between 20% and 70% of repeatedly positive ELISA tests are confirmed using Western Blot.

ELISA

99.3% of infected people are identified (very sensitive)

99.7% of uninfected people correctly test negative (specific)

Western Blot

98.9% of infected people are identified (sensitive)

97.8% of uninfected people correctly test negative (very specific)

Combining the results of both tests increases accuracy. However, it can be seen that if 10,000 people are tested with ELISA, we can expect that 0.3%, or thirty people, will test positive even if none of the 10,000 is infected. The proportion could be higher if the test was carried out only once, and if testing facilities are poor, as is the case in some countries.

Some samples show a slight reaction to one or two bands. These are called `indeterminate results'. There are three reasons for this. First, some people may be in the very early stages of infection, so antibodies are not yet fully present. A repeat test a few weeks later will sort that out.

Secondly, some may be infected with HIV-2, which is similar enough for antibodies to cross-react against HIV-1 to some extent.

Thirdly, it may be a true false-positive result: the person may be completely healthy and not infected with any kind of HIV strain. This is very rare.

People with very early infection, or infection with HIV-2, usually show a reaction to the viral core protein p24 first. Between 60% and 90% of HIV-2 infection is picked up with an HIV-1 ELISA test.

Although the `window period' between infection and antibody detection is usually regarded as about six to eight weeks, at least 95% will test positive after twelve weeks (usually a lot more) and 99% by six months. International standards are maintained at a very high level by the World Health Organisation which regularly sends out test samples to over 100 laboratories.

Some can be ill or dying with AIDS and test negative. The reason here is that their immune systems are so severely damaged that they have lost the ability to form antibodies. The diagnosis is usually obvious from symptoms and other laboratory tests looking at their white cells.

It is possible to test for HIV directly, not waiting for antibodies to develop. This method looks for viral genes---the DNA instructions that the virus inserts into white cells to hijack them into virus factories.

A special chemical reaction is used called PCR (polymerase chain reaction), which can multiply a million copies of viral DNA in three hours, and combined with other equipment can detect as little as one piece of viral DNA in ten microlitres of blood. The test has been useful in some situations to detect possible infection far earlier than antibody tests. More than 90% of antibody positive people also test positive by PCR, but not all. The technique is extremely sensitive to cross-contamination from previous samples. It is very easy to get false positive results.

Viral culture is another method of testing, where attempts are made to obtain HIV from white cells. It can detect 50% of HIV-infected children at birth, unlike antibody testing.

In conclusion then, HIV testing is now very accurate indeed, although the initial test result always needs to be confirmed.

Q. ´Can saliva be used instead of blood to test for HIV?

Saliva testing is convenient and fast, and depends on finding antibodies to HIV in the mouth. A few drops of saliva are absorbed onto a special pad inserted into the mouth for a few minutes. The length of collection time is important. The fluid can then be tested using exactly the same equipment as for testing blood. Saliva collection has been used to screen prisoners, drug injectors, and now applicants for life insurance. However, studies show the results are not yet quite as accurate as for blood, for two reasons. First, the collection method may not adequately collect antibodies, particularly if the collection period is too brief. Secondly, food residues and other proteins in the mouth may confuse the test, although this is less of a problem as testing methods improve.

By packaging a simple saliva collection device with one of the latest `instant' testing kits, the technology now exists to market a do-it-yourself home test for HIV, available from chemists. However, there are grave concerns about this. While there may be a market from people who do not want anyone else to know their result, or from people wanting to test new partners or prostitutes in the bedroom, there is a real danger that people will misunderstand the implications of the result, or even take their own lives if the test result is positive and they are not given adequate counselling.

Q. ´Are all those with HIV going to develop AIDS?

We do not know whether all with HIV will develop AIDS because we have not been following people with HIV long enough. As we have seen, in Western countries where anti-viral treatments are not used half are ill within ten years and 70% in fourteen years. Progression is often more rapid in the poorest nations. Long-term survivors are an interesting and important group because they may have within their genetic makeup some kind of enhanced ability---complete or not---to contain HIV infection. Unfortunately, when we study the immune systems of long-term survivors who are well, we find the majority show some signs of immune damage. Of course, the longer people survive, the more likely it is that they will die of some other cause in the meantime before AIDS develops.

Q. ´Is it possible for people to get rid of HIV once infected?

There have been possibly one or two cases where there has been good evidence of HIV infection, but after a year or two, no trace of virus anywhere in the body can be found. Although it is still too early to be sure, some experts believe that these individuals may have succeeded in eliminating HIV.

It also seems possible that a certain group in the population with particular genes may have some kind of constitutional protection against HIV infection. This should not surprise us. Just like bacteria develop resistance to antibiotics because susceptible bacteria die, leaving one or two variants with natural protection, so we would expect to find among millions of different human beings, a few with gene variations which protect.

By focusing on how the genes work, we may be able to find a way of protecting the rest of the population. By analysing people's genes we may also be able to predict in the future what treatments will be most appropriate and at what stage.

Some individuals exposed to HIV show no sign of HIV infection by antibody tests or by PCR viral antigen testing (see previous question on test reliability). However, their white cells show signs of sensitisation to HIV, suggesting that their immune systems have encountered HIV but have eliminated it within days of exposure.

As we will see later (questions on mosquitoes and kissing), it may be that one reason why HIV seems not to be very infectious might be that many people have an ability to destroy a limited number of HIV particles. A small exposure would then fail to infect many people. One US study has suggested that up to 65% of HIV-negative gay men, 45% of negative drug users and 75% of health care workers accidentally exposed, all show evidence of sensitisation, but not infection. The same research workers found strong evidence of HIV sensitisation in around 2% of the US population---not surprising if the official figure of 1 million HIV-infected is correct.

Q. ´Are some types of condom safer than others?

There are hundreds of different brands available, ranging from latex to animal membrane. The ultra-thin/sensitive varieties are most likely to tear, although any condom may tear during anal sex. All latex condoms will rot rapidly if oil-based lubricants are used, and will deteriorate with storage in high temperatures. Animal membrane condoms may permit virus to pass through more easily.

In summary, if you are taking a risk you need to use a thick latex condom. This will reduce your risk enormously if the condom is correctly and carefully used. (See next chapter for further details on condoms.)

Q. ´Do the results of an HIV antibody test go on my medical record?

In many countries you can go to a clinic and get a completely anonymous test done. However, the results of named tests are very likely to go on your medical records.

Q. ´I have heard some say HIV does not cause AIDS and that AIDS in Africa is a myth. What is the evidence?

There have been suggestions that HIV may not be the cause of AIDS, and that the AIDS epidemic in Africa is a myth. This has in part been due to the claims of a US scientist, Professor Duesberg, who has promoted the view that HIV is relatively harmless, and that AIDS is caused by recreational drugs or other causes of immune damage. Connected with this has been the claim that anti-viral drugs are useless, even in those with AIDS---indeed that they actually causes AIDS.

Considering how poorly these claims are supported by scientific data, how very few other scientists take them seriously and how damaging the claims are to the health campaign, it is surprising they have been given such sympathetic reaction by some people. Underlying most of these claims is a conspiracy theory involving alleged multinational fraud by research workers and drug companies, with the collusion of governments and the World Health Organisation. Trying to discuss the issues with some of these people is hard work. They rarely have scientific credentials themselves of any note, and have an almost messianic fervour in devotion to their cause.

Remember you can write an apparently well-researched book to make a case for almost any bizarre theory by selective quoting of scientific papers, just as you can make a bizarre religion out of twisting bible sayings out of context. Even more so with scientific literature since it so vast each month, so variable in quality and in results. 50 scientists conducting similar studies over a decade do NOT report the same results. There are a hundred reasons for variations. The truth is gained by studying the consensus, although media headlines are almost always built out of single findings which suggest something different from most studies. Much of the scientific literature is complex and easy to misunderstand.

I am asked for clarification almost every week by well-informed people who are deeply puzzled. The confusion is dangerous too. At a recent International AIDS Conference I was handed a leaflet by an AIDS activist titled `HIV is good for you'.

Here is a brief summary of some of the reasons why almost all scientists working in the AIDS field are totally convinced that HIV is a highly dangerous infectious virus causing AIDS.

1. The appearance of AIDS always follows HIV spread. In every group studied we have seen the rise in numbers ill with AIDS closely linked to the increasing spread of HIV infection some years earlier.

Example: In Edinburgh rapid spread of HIV among drug users was followed by a steady rise in those ill or dying. In Glasgow, drug users of similar age, background and lifestyle were much less affected by HIV (HIV hit Glasgow later and behaviour changed in time) and death rates have been much lower. Incidentally, scientific studies have shown that nitrites and other recreational drugs do not cause AIDS.

Example: In many parts of Africa people have died from illnesses such as tuberculosis in large numbers for decades. However, a large rise in deaths in the sexually-active age group has followed spread of HIV into this group, with death rates in two years sixty times higher in those with HIV.

Some have claimed that HIV has been present at similar levels for decades. This is nonsense. HIV levels in most towns and cities in many nations show rapid year-on-year rises took place during the 1980s and early 1990s. Indeed, one study in 1986 found HIV levels as low as 1 in 1,000 in some groups, rising since.

Some have claimed that there is no massive AIDS epidemic in Africa and that HIV is being blamed for deaths of people who would have been dying anyway. It is true that diagnosis of AIDS in an individual in Africa can be difficult, as we saw in Chapter 3, but the fact is that death rates in the younger age groups are unexpectedly high---and among babies of those infected too. Babies testing positive a year after birth become ill later with AIDS. Those testing negative do not.

Many Africans arriving in countries like the UK with HIV, who become ill and die, clearly have an identical illness to those with AIDS infected in industrialised nations.

Some say there is a cross-reaction between malaria antibodies and HIV tests. As we saw in the earlier question on test accuracy, this was a problem in the mid-1980s, but not today. It is obvious anyway that malaria confusion is not taking place on a wide scale. The numbers in the population with malaria antibodies have remained relatively constant, while the numbers testing positive for HIV have soared. And HIV is found in many areas where there is no malaria.

Great weight has sometimes been placed on comments by some African specialists and politicians that the AIDS problem has been exaggerated by the West and that the actual size of the epidemic is far less significant than has been made out. Unfortunately, almost all doctors and nurses from European and other nations working in government and mission hospitals give a different story, based on first-hand experience of the unfolding catastrophe. Many African experts are not free to talk about AIDS, for reasons we saw in Chapter 1. Indeed, many Western doctors in these nations may also find it difficult to talk until they go home on leave.

Example: Those with haemophilia have received blood extracts for many years without problems. However, once HIV contaminated their supplies those testing positive for HIV began to grow ill and die - as did in some cases their wives and children. Some have claimed that these haemophiliacs are only ill because the blood extracts of Factor VIII are rejected as foreign to the body and damage their immune systems. Evidence quoted in favour of this is from unpublished early reports that haemophiliacs with HIV are progressing more slowly to AIDS when converted to pure genetically-engineered Factor VIII. However, if Factor VIII is the sole explanation, why are uninfected people who have been receiving impure blood extracts for years not developing AIDS? We would also expect those receiving HIV in a blood transfusion to remain perfectly well when the fact is that they become ill and die too.

Anyone can see the links: a woman receives a pint of infected blood and becomes infected. Six years later she is unwell. Her baby is infected and develops AIDS and so does her husband. But no one else in her family dies. Why? Because a lethal infectious agent which we call HIV has been transmitted from blood to person, to partner and to baby. In fact these facts are so obvious and so simple to understand that it is extraordinary to me that anyone of even moderate intelligence should insist that there are other explanations.

Example: As we have seen, mothers can transmit HIV to their babies through the womb, during birth and in breast milk. These babies get ill and die of AIDS. Those who do not become infected remain well throughout life. Remember of course that we are not talking here about babies falsely testing positive to HIV because the result is confused by maternal antibodies.

2. The pattern of HIV spread fits AIDS pattern. If HIV is the cause of AIDS, we should expect to find that HIV shows evidence of spread through sexual activity and through the blood, since we know people with AIDS are linked by such contact. This is indeed what we find, with overwhelming evidence of person-to-person spread of HIV by these routes.

3. HIV targets the cells which are damaged in AIDS. Some have tried to make a case that HIV is just an innocent passenger, not causing illness but just travelling with whatever does do the damage. However, the more we study HIV the more we understand how dangerous it is.

We know that HIV gets inside the same white cells whose death results in AIDS. We know that after an initial brief illness, HIV goes on multiplying in lymph nodes, where large numbers of infected cells can be found throughout the symptom-free period. We know that as virus levels rise, the person becomes more ill. We know that HIV attacks some cells in the brain and in the gut directly, explaining why people with AIDS can have damage to both organs. Although early studies have suggested that only one target white cell in 10,000 becomes infected, more sensitive tests have now detected HIV infection in one in ten cells.

4. Anti-HIV treatments benefit those with AIDS. If HIV is the cause of AIDS, then we would expect drugs used to fight HIV to produce an improvement in those who are ill. As we have seen in Chapter 2, there are a great number of independent studies which show that the anti-viral drugs improve the condition and survival of those with AIDS when used appropriately. It is true that they have side effects, and it is also true that resistance to the drugs can make treatment less effective after a while. As this happens, CD4 cell levels fall, virus levels rise and the person often begins to deteriorate. This is all evidence of linkage.

The simple fact is that babies of mothers with HIV are far less likely to die of immune deficiency if their mothers have been given anti-virals during late pregnancy. Why? Because anti-virals lower the levels of HIV in the mother's blood and this helps save baby's lives. The HIV-does-not-cause-AIDS groups say that anti-virals actually CAUSE AIDS, and do not prevent it. This is a ridiculous conclusion to draw from our experience of caring for babies. It is also equally absurd when it comes to adults. These people fail to recognise that all over the world there are people dying with AIDS who have never had the luxury of anti-viral treatment, and even in wealthy nations there are people who have been diagnosed late so not treated before becoming very ill, or who for one reason or another were unwilling at any stage to be treated. They still get ill and die.

Great play has been made by a minority on the discovery of a very small number of people who seem to have an AIDS-like illness with no evidence of HIV infection. I am not referring here to those who for various reasons lose or never develop an antibody response, but those in whom HIV is never found, even with many different detection methods.

There are two explanations for this, neither of which destroys the HIV basis for AIDS. First, we sometimes fail to look hard enough. Even in an illness like TB, it is not always possible to find the organisms. In other very rare cases it appears we are looking at a very rare form of immune problem that has probably been around for centuries, and is nothing to do with AIDS. Such cases account for only a few in a million of what gets diagnosed as AIDS. As we have seen in earlier chapters there are undoubtedly other factors which can cause acceleration or slowing of disease which might include other infections such as mycoplasma and the genetic makeup of the individual.

In summary then, there is overwhelming evidence that HIV causes AIDS, although, as with the link between smoking and lung cancer, much of it is circumstantial, based on large-scale studies of disease patterns. Just as you cannot PROVE that smoking causes lung cancer, or that a cancer in a particular person was caused by smoking, you cannot PROVE that HIV causes damage to the immune system or that a particular person dying with TB is dying because HIV has weakened their defences. The nature of medical research is to look for patterns that fit everything else we understand about illnesses. If we accept (as most people do without question) that smoking is dangerous, then exactly the same logical process forces us to conclude that HIV causes AIDS. The evidence is before the jury, and the result is conviction. The evidence is beyond all reasonable doubt.

Q. ´Is it safe to share pierced earrings?

No. Inserting an earring can cause a tiny amount of bleeding and the earring can accumulate dried debris. Earrings should not be shared. They should be regarded in the same way as needles. Clip-on earrings are safe.

Q. ´Is a communal bucket and sponge safe for athletes to wash bloody injuries?

The sponge could transmit the virus by allowing blood from one player into another player's wound. Clean the bucket and sponge with antiseptic between players. The virus can survive in water for several days

Q. ´Are contact sports safe?

You are far more likely to die from a broken neck or be paralysed for life during rough contact sports than catch HIV. For this to happen, blood from an infected player's body would have to be rubbed into a wound on your body. This is extremely unlikely.

Q.