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The Genetic Revolution


Chapter 1

1 "Prospects for gene replacement therapy": Birth Defects; 1987(23)3;p297-32

5 Thomas Savery - first steam water pump for miners in 1698.James Watt patented his famous engine in 1769.Encyclopaedia Brittanica.

Chapter 2

10 "Molecular pathology of haemophilia":Q.J.Med;1987 (June);63(242);p473-9

20 "Genetic engineering of Factor 8":Nature;1989(Nov9) ­342(6246);p207-8

30 "Artificial chromosomes":Scientific American;1987 Nov;257(5);p62-8

35 It is true that I am excluding here as elsewhere red blood cells which have no nucleus once released into the blood, and sperm or eggs with only 1,500,000,000 bases in them.

40 "Transgenic mice":Bioessays(1987)Feb;6(2);p73-6

50 "Germ line therapy and the clinical ethos of medical gen ­etics":Theor.Med.1989(June);10(2);p151-65

Chapter 3

60 "When is cloning lawful?":J.In Vitro Fert Embryo Transf;1987(Aug)4(4);p198-204

70 "Cloning of cow and sheep embryos":Genome;1989(31)2;p956-62

90 "New knowledge and aspects in the use of biotechnol ­ogy":2-Gesamte Inn. Med. 1986(May 1);41(9);p249-55

95 page 58

100 Personal communication 1985 Cambridge research worker

110 "Genetic engineering in transplant research":Transplant.Proc;1987(Feb 19);p36-9

120 Independent magazine: 20.4.91 pp26-30: "Mice as people"

130 "Biohazard":110 page document produced by National Anti-vivi ­section Society in London in 1987.Quotes over 1000 scien ­tific papers relating to deliberate transmission of lethal viruses from species to spe ­cies in US primate centres in the 1960's and 1970's.

135 page 71

140 "Fetal tissue transplantation, bone marrow trans ­plantation and prospective gene therapy in severe immunodeficiencies and enzyme defi ­ciencies":Thymus;1987;10(1-2);p75-87

145 "A century of neurotransplantation in ani ­mals":Neurochirurgie;1990;(36)2;p71-95

Chapter 4

150 "Claims on tissue plasminogen activator":Nature;1989(Jan 26);337(6205);p317-8

160 "Whose genes are they anyway?":Independent 6.5.91 p19

170 "Life forms protectable as subjects of US patents - microbes to animals":Applied Biochem.Biotechnology; ­1987(Sep-Dec);16(6);p79-93

180 "Congress to weigh animal pat ­ents":Science;1987;236(4805);p1058

190 "Patent office puts Genentech out in front":Nature 1987(Nov12-18);330(6144);p97

200 "Groups to fight the new genetic law":Independent 6.5.91 p1

210 "German moratorium urged":Science;1987 (Feb 13);235 ­(4790);p741

220 "Australian innovation covered by US pat ­ent":Nature;1989 (Oct 12);341(6242);p473

230 "Biotechnology patents: Dupont battles with Cetus": ­Nature;1989 (Nov 2);342(6245);p9

240 Example: "EC announces bovine hormone mora ­torium":Nature;1989 (Sep 28);341(6240);p274

245 "Greens losing gene battle":Nature;1990(Aug 16);346 ­(6285);p601

250 "New genes for old":Scientific American;1988 (Feb); ­258(2);p32, 34

260 "The polymerase chain reaction: an improved method for the analysis of nucleic acids":Hum.Genet.;1989 (Aug);83(1);p1-15

270 "Plasmids in the environment":Schrifteur-ver-Wasser-Boden-Lufthyg;1988;(78);p197-224

280 "Plasmids: properties and use in genetic engineer ­ing":Genetika;1986 (Aug);22(8);p2042-7


290 page 87

295 "Gene escape model: transfer of heavy metal resis ­tance genes from E.coli":App. Environ. Microbiol:19 ­90(Aug);56(8);p2471-9

296 "Problems and potential for in situ treatment of environmental pollutants by engineered micro-organ ­isms":Microbiol Sci;1987(Feb);4(2);p59-63

297 "Biotechnological treatment of industrial waste water":Microbiol. Sci;1988(June);5(6);p186-90

300 page 89

305 page 89

310 "A high efficiency method for site-directed mutagen ­esis with any plasmid":Gene;1989 (Dec 7);84(1);p153-7.Average yield of mutants was 60% with simple and rapid techniques.

320 "Monomeric Insulins obtained by protein engineering and their medical implications":Nature;1988 (June 16);333(6179);p679-82

330 "Saccharomyces expressing hepatitis B surface antigen":Postgrad.Med.Journal;1987(63 Sup 2);738;p ­65-70

340 "Laboratory bench to production scale":Dev.Biol.Stand;1987;67(3);p201-6

350 "Electroporation: parameters affecting transfer of DNA into mammalian cells":Anal.Biochem;1987 (Jul);1 ­64(1);p44-52

360 "Electroporation for the efficient transfection of mammalian cells with DNA":Nucleic Acids Research;1987 (Feb 11);15(3);p1311-26.Other tech ­niques also exist: "Gene replacement by homologous recombination in mammalian cells":Somat.Cell.Mol.Genetics;1987 (July);13(4);p447-9

also "Electroporation as a technique for producing transgenic fish":Cell Differ Dev;1990 (Feb);29(2);p ­123-8

370 "Electro-stimulated cell fusion in cell engineer ­ing":Biofizika;1987 (Sep-Oct);32(5);p874-87

380 "Stable expression in mammalian cells of transfected genes using erythrocyte ghost fusion":Exp.Cell.Res;1987 (nov);173(1);p218-31

There are many ways of doing this and improvements are being made all the time: "Targeted gene replace ­ment (of mammal cells)":Somat.Cell Mol.Genet(US);19 ­90(Sept);16(5);p437-41

390 "An alternative approach to somatic cell gene ther ­apy":Proc.Natl.Acad.Sci.USA;1988 (May);85(9);p3150-4

400 "Production methods and safety evaluations of cytok ­ines":Dev.Biol.Stand;1988(69);p193-7

410 "Gene replacement and expression of foreign DNA in mycobacteria":Journal of Bacteriology;1990 (Feb);17 ­2(2);p519-24

420 "Expression of a multidrug resistance - adenosine deaminase fusion gene":Journal of Biol.Chem.;1989 (May 5);264(13);7418-24

430 "Regulation of Insulin-gene expression.Implica ­tions for gene therapy":N.Engl.J.Med;1987 (Oct 22); ­317(17);p1067-76

440 "The molecular pathology of haemo ­philia":Q.J.Med;1987 (Jun);63(242);p473-91

450 "The human as an experimental system in molecular gen ­etics":Science;1988 (Jun 10);240(4858);1483-8

455 "Discovery of gene could ai mental handicap screen ­ing":Independent;1.6.91

460 Independent April 1991

462 "Discovery of the gene defect in cystic fibrosis: implications for diagnosis and treat ­ment":Clin.Pharm(US);1990(Sept);9(9);p716-7

470 "Who owns the human genome?":Science;1987 (Jul 24); ­237(4813);p358-61

475 "Ethical issues in human genome research":FASEB J;1991;5(1);p55-60

480 "Biotechnology and the medicine of the future":JAMA;1988 (Mar 23);259(12);1837-44

490 "General approach to the engineering of synthetic DNA":Bioorg-Khim;1985 (Nov);11(11);p1533-46

492 The Science Museum in West Kensington is well worth a visit.There is an excellent genetic engineering exhibition on the second floor with three dimension ­al molecules of DNA and virus particles as well as some very clear displays on monoclonal antibody production and reading/writing DNA.Admission is free from 4.30-6.00 p.m. Monday to Sunday.

493 "Clone 3: plasmid drawing and clone management soft ­ware pro ­gram for microcomputers":Biotechniques;1990 (Jun);8(6);p690-3

494 "Plasmid optimised for protein design projects":Gene (Nether ­lands);1990 (Sept 28);94(1);-1-7

495 "DNA amplification by the polymerase chain reac ­tion":Anal.Chem;1990 (Jul);62(13);p1202-14

500 "Mendelian inheritance in man": Professor Victor McKusick, John Hopkins University USA 1990

510 Independent 26.2.91

520 "The truth about human genome research":letter Inde ­pendent 3.3.91

525 "Down on the pharm.Animal developers seeking bet ­ter beasts breed controversy":Scientific Ameri ­can;1990(Aug);263(2);p102-3

530 "The human as an experimental system in molecular gen ­etics":Science;1988 (Jun 10);240(4858);p1483-8

535 "Retrovirus vectors for mammalian engineer ­ing":Microbiol.Sci;1984(Nov);1(8);p210

540 "Identification in transgenic animals of the Drosophila sequences required for embryonic dorsal pattern forma ­tion":Genes Dev;1987 (Aug);1(6);p615-25

550 "The Frankenstein thing: the moral impact of genetic engineer ­ing of agricultural animals on society and future science":Basic Life Sci;1986(37);p285-97

560 "Transgenic live ­stock":J.Reprod.Fertil.Suppl;1987;34(1-4);p237-50

570 "'Artificial' chromosomes":Naturwissenschaffen;1987 (Feb);74(2);p78-85 (German)

Chapter 5

580 "Life forms protectable as subjects of US patents - microbes to animals":Applied Biochem.Biotechnol;1987 (Sep-Dec);16(6);p79-93

585 "Agrobacterium in plant disease, biological disease control and plant genetic engineering":Sci.Prog; 1990;74(293 pt1);p1-13

590 "Advanced in gene engineering of microorgan ­isms":Genetika;1987 (Oct);23(10);p1741-8 (Russian)

600 BBC2 television documentary April 1991

610 "Safety testing of novel food products created by biotechnology and genetic manipulation":Biotechnol. Genet.Eng.Rev;1987;5(5);p369-95

615 "Genetic engineering of plants for virus resis ­tance":Arch.Virol;1990;115(1-2);p1-21

620 "Increased insecticidal effect by a recombinant baculovirus carrying a synthetic hormone gene":Biochem.Biophys.Res.Commun;1989 (Dec 29);165( ­3);p1177-83

625 "Construction of genetically engineered baculovirus insecti ­cides":J.Gen.Virol;1990(Jun);71(pt7);p1535-44

630 "Genetic engineers aim for the apple of their eye": Indepen ­dent 16.1.91

640 "Genetic engineering of.....chicken growth hor ­mone":Mol.Biol(Mosk);1987 (Nove-DEc);21(6);p1620-4 (Russian)

648 "Vectors and genes for improvement of animal strains":J.Reprod.Fertil.Suppl;1990;(41);p39-49

650 "EC passes hormone for cows":Independent 27.3.91;p3

651 "Animal husbandry and biotechnology":Tijdschr Dierg ­eneeskd;1987 (Jan 1);112(1);p9-15 (Dutch)

660 "BST safety hurdle provides test case for biotechno ­logy":Independent 26.11.90

670 "New approaches to animal vaccines utilising genetic engineer ­ing":Crit.Rev.Microbiol;1988;15(3);p269-95

680 "Embryo sexing of farm animals":Dev.Biol (NY 1985); ­1986;4;p195-216

690 "Characterisation of transgenic livestock produc ­tion":Domest.Anim.Endocrinol;1990 (Jan);7(1);p1-18

700 "Life forms protectable as subjects of US patents - microbes to animals":Appl.Biochem.Biotechnol;1987 (Sep-Dec);16(6);p79-93

710 "Gene transfer into mouse embryos":Devel.Biol (NY 1985):1986:4:p1-36

720 "Progress on gene transfer in farm ani ­mals":Vet.Immunol.Immunopathol;1987 (Dec);17(1-4);p ­303-12

730 "Genetic transformation of animal germ cells by microinjection of the cloned genes into the pronuclei or into the early embryos":Ontogenez;1985 (Nov-Dec);16(6);p553-67 (Russian)

740 "The role of transgenic animals in the analysis of various biological aspects of normal and pathologi ­cal states":Exp.Cell.Res;1989 (Aug);183(2);p257-76

750 "Alteration of milk composition using molecular gen ­etics":Journal of Dairy Science;1989 (Oct);72(10 ­);p2826-33

760 "Future developments in the manipulation of growth in farm animals":Vet.Rec;1987(May 23);120(21);p495-9

765 "Animal production industry in the year 2000":J.Rep ­rod.Fertil.Suppl;1990;(41);p199-208

770 "Transgenic livestock":J.Reprod.Fertil. Suppl;1987; ­34(1-4);p237-50

780 "Electroporation as a new technique for producing transgenic fish":Cell Differ Dev;1990 (Feb);29(2);p ­123-8

790 "Production of transgenic rabbits by microinjection of a gene into fertilised rabbit oocytes":DTW;1987 (Sep);94(8);p476-8

800 "Cloning of sheep and cow embryos":Genome;1989;(31)2;p956-62

805 "New animal breeding techniques and their applica ­tion":J.Reprod.Fert.Suppl;1990;(41);p3-14

810 "Genetic engineering:modified yeasts fine for food":Nature;1990 (Mar 15);344(6263);p186

820 "Modified yeast fine for food":Nature;1990 (Mar 15);344(6263);p186

830 "Genetic engineeering of ethanol production in Esch ­erichia coli":Appl.Envirnomental Microbology;1987 (Oct);53(10);p2420-5

Chapter 6

840 "Human gene therapy: possibilities and limita ­tions":Experiention;1987 (Apr 15);43(4);p375-8

also "Genetics and the future of medicine" S ­o ­m ­a ­t ­. ­C ­e ­l ­l ­. ­M ­o ­l ­. ­G ­e ­n ­e ­t ­i ­c ­s ­; ­1 ­987 ( ­J ­u ­l ­) ­; ­1 ­3 ­( ­4 ­) ­; ­p ­485-9


845 "Recombinant DNA and Surgery":Ann.Surg;1990 (Aug);2 ­12(2);p178-86

"Surgeons will need to understand basic DNA research .... to keep up with the revolution in medical ther ­apies that these techniques will cause."

850 "Cancer test on foetus at 10 weeks":Independent 24.11.90

860 "Disfiguring gene found by scientists":Independent 19.2.91

870 "Family link to breast cancer":Independent 19.2.91

875 "Discovery of gene could aid mental handicap screen ­ing:Independent;1.6.91

880 "From bench to bedside - the impact of the transfer of new biology to clinical prac ­tice":Clin.Invest.Med;1988 (Aug);11(4);p315-20

890 "The good news - and the bad - about gene therapy pros ­pects":Science;1987 (Apr 3);236(4797);p29-30

900 "The shape of drugs to come":BMA News Review;1983

also "Gene technology and the drugs of tomorrow": Pharm.Weekly(Sci);1990 (Feb 23);12(1);p6-10

910 "Protein engineering and design":Philos.Trans.R.Soc.Lond(Biol);1989 (Aug 31); 342(1224);p447-60

920 Redesigning trypsin via genetic engineering":Journal of Cell Biochemistry;1987 (Mar);33(3);p199-211

930 "Genetically engineered drugs:toxicology with a differ ­ence":Prog.Clin.Biol.Res;1987;235(9);p161-7

940 "Human EGF produced by genetic engineer ­ing":Biochem.Biophys.Res.Commun;1989 (Sep 15); 163( ­2);p1100-6

950 "Implantation of fibroblasts transfected with human granulocyte colony stimulating factor DNA":Blood;19 ­89 (Sep);74(4);p1274-80

960 "Periplasmic secretion of human growth hormone by Escherichia coli":Biochem Soc.Trans;1989 (Apr);17(2 ­);p335-7

970 "Characterisation of crystals of genetically engin ­eered human manganese superoxide dismutase":Journal of Mol.Biol;1989 (Apr 20);206(4);p787-8

980 "Claims on tissue plasminogen activator":Nature;1989 (Jan 26);337(6205);p317-8

990 "Approaches to gene therapy in disorders of purine metab ­olism":Rheum.Dis.Clin.North Am;1988 (Aug);14(2 ­);p459-77

1000 "Monomeric Insulins obtained by protein engineering and their medical implications":Nature;1988 (June 16);333(6174);p679-8

1010 "Human H-chain ferritins - expression in E.coli":Fe ­bs - Lett;1988 (Jul 4);234(1);p61-4

1020 "Stabilising basic fibroblast growth factor using protein enigneering":Biochem.Biophys.Res.Commun;1988 (Mar 15);151(2);p701-8

1030 "Human calmodulin expression in E.coli":Protein Eng;1988 (Oct);2(4);p307-11

1040 "Genetic engineering of Factor 8":Nature;1989 (Nov 9);342(6246);p207-8

1050 "E.coli in biotechnology":Wein.Med.Wochenschr;1986 (Apr 30);136(7-8);p158-62 (German)

1060 "Gene engineered somatogen":Antibiot.Med.Biotekhnol ­;1986 (Nov);31(11);p841-5

1070 "Court blocks German biotech plant":Science;1989 (Nov 17);246(4932);p881

1080 BBC2 television documentary April 1991

1090 "Gene replacement and expresison of foreign DNA in mycobacteria":Journal of Bacteriology;1990 (Feb);17 ­2(2);p519-24

1100 Human cell models for genetic engineer ­ing":Mod.Prog.Technol;1989;(15)1-2;p83-100

1110 "Human adenosine deaminase from insect lar ­vae":Proc.Natl.Acad.Sci.USA;1990 (Apr);87(7); p2760-4

1120 "Stimulation and inhibition of the growth of mice carrying the human growth hormone gene":Bink.Eksp.Biol.Med;1986 (Sep);102(9);p339-42 (Russian)

1130 "Gene genies":Brit.J.of Pharm.Pract;1990 (Aug);p267

1140 "Present status of recombinant clotting fac ­tors":Haemophilia Society Bulletin;1991(Feb);p6-7

1150 "Impact of genetic engineering on the commercial production of antibiotics by streptomyces and related bacteria":Appl.Biochem.Biotechnol;1987 (Sep-Dec);16(6);p169-90

1160 "Antibiotics: opportunities for genetic engin ­eers":Philos.Trans.R.Sco.Lond.(Biol);1989 (Aug 31); ­324(1224);p549-62

1168 "Genetically engineered monoclonal anti ­bodies":Br.J.Rheumatol;1991;30 Supp 2;p36-9

1170 "Strategies for controlling cancer through gen ­etics":Cancer Res;1987 (Dec 15);47(24pt1);p6814-7

1180 "Genetically engineered antobody molecules: new tools for cancer therapy":Cancer Invest;1988;6(2);185-92

1182 "Use of monoclonal antibodies in the treatment of cancer of the pancreas: towards new prog ­ress":Bull.Cancer 1990;(77)3;p283-8

1190 "Lifespan extension of basal cel nevus syndrome fibroblasts by transfection with mouse pro or v-myc genes":International Journal of Cancer;1987 (May 15);39(5);p649-55

1200 "Gene therapy may have future role in cancer treat ­ment":Journal of the American Medical Associ ­ation(JAMA);1987 (Jan 9);257(2);p150-1

1210 "Genetic swaps may halt cancer":Independent;18.2.91

1220 "Scientists identify a genetic link in can ­cers":Independent;23.3.90

1230 "Local administration of cells containing an inserted IL-Z gene and producing IL-Z inhibits of human tumours in nu/nu mice":Immunol.Lett;1988 (Dec ­);19(4);p279-82

1240 "Engineering moncolonal antibodies":Nature;1989 (Nov 2);342(6245);p99-100

1250 "Genetically engineered antibody molecules and their applica ­tion":Ann.NY.Acad.Science;1987;507(10); p187-98

1260 "Genetically engineered anti ­bodies":Hosp.Pract.Off;1989 (Oct);24(10);p65-9,77-4,77-80

1270 "Potential risks of tumour virus subgenomes in the production of biologicals":Dev.Biol.Stand;1987;68(2-3);p51-62

1280 "Risk of neoplastic transformation from cellular DNA: calcula ­tions using an oncogene mode":Dev.Biol,Stand;1987;68(2-3);p43-9

1290 "Antibody engineering":Philos.Trans.R.Soc.Lond (Biol);1989 (aug 31);3774(47);p537-46

1295 "Antibody engineering and perspectives in ther ­apy":Biochemie;1990(Sep);72(9);p639-51

1300 "Genetically engineered antibodies":Clinical Cehm;1 ­989 (Sep);35(9);p1849-53

1310 "Seeding of intravascular stents with genetically engineered endothelial cells":Circulation;1989 (Nov ­);80(5);p1347-53

1315 "Introduction of vascular smooth muscle cells expre ­ssing recombinant genes in vivo":Circulation;1991;83(2);p578-83

1320 "New tchnology of vaccine production":Nippon Rinsho ­;1987 (Oct);45(10);p2333-41 (Japanese)

1325 "Genetic engineering applied to the development of vac ­cines":Philos.Trans.R.Soc.Lond (Biol):1989 (aug 31);324(1224);p461-76

1330 "The third generation vaccines":Padiatirc-Padol;198 ­6;21(2);p197-204

1340 Product name: Engerix B.Vaccine contains 20 micrograms of hepatitis B sufrace antigen protein, costing ?30 per course of three injections.Product sheet: Smith Kline and Trench Laboratories 9.1.91

1350 "Immunisation against infectious disease":Her Maj ­esties Stationery Office (HMSO), London 1990

1360 "Engineering bacterial toxins for the development of a new vaccine against whooping cough":Parmacol.Res;1989 (Nov-Dec);21 Suppl 2;p19-25

1363 "Recombination in vivo of pseudorabies vaccine strains to produce new virus strains";Vaccine;1990 (Jun);8(3);p286-8

1365 "Immunisation against malaria:present knowledge": Med.Trop(Mars);1990(Jan-Mar);50(1);p137-41

1367 "Gene replacement in parasitic proto ­zoa":Nature;1990(Nov 8);348(6297);p171-5

1368 "Construction of a bivalent oral vaccine for preven ­tion of typhoid fever and cholera diar ­rhoea":Sci.China;1990 (Jan);33(1);p44-9

1370 "The new way to put on genes":Independent April 1991

1380 "Somatic gene therapy for human disease: background and pros ­pects":Journal of Paediatrics;1987 (Feb);11 ­0(2);p167-74

1390 "Future developments in phenylketonuria":Enzyme;1987;38(1-4);p296-301

1400 "Prospects for correction of thalassemia by genetic engineer ­ing":Prog.Clin;Biol.Res;1989;309;p141-59

1410 "Majority of mice show long term expression of a human beta-globin gene after retrovirus transfer into hematopoietic stem cells":Mol.Cell.Biol;1989 (Apr);9(4);p1476-34

1420 "Psychiatry, molecular genetics and ethics: the new dis ­coveries and the new issues":Aust. NZ Journal of Psychia ­try;1989 (Mar);73(1);p67-72

1430 "Gene transfer into mouse embryos":Dev.Biol.(NY 1985);1986;4;p1-36

1440 "Gene transfer into primates and prospects for gene therapy in humans":Prog.Nucleic Acid Res.Mol.Biol;1 ­989;(36);p311-22

1450 "Progress towards human gene therapy":Science;1989 (Jun 16);244(4910);p1275-81

1460 "Aerosols may soon be used to treat cyctic fibro ­sis":Independent 21.11.90

Chapter 7

1470 "Search for an immune response that counts":New Scien ­tist;27.4.91

1480 "Putting candidate vaccines through their paces":New Scien ­tist;27.4.91

1490 "AIDS deaths blamed on immune therapy":New Scien ­tist;p38

? "AIDS vaccines: what chance of a fair trial?":New Scien ­tist;27.4.91;p33-35

1500 "Applying the PDR principle to AIDS":J.Theor;Biol;1988 (Feb 21);130(4);469-80

1505 "A putative approach for gene therapy against human immunodeficiency virus":Med. Hypotheses;1990 (Jun); ­32(2);p81-4

1510 Several methods exist e.g. "Gene transfer into mam ­malian cells by electroporation":Tanpakushitsu Kaku ­san Koso;1987 (Jan);32(1);p10-21 (Japanese)

1520 "Implantation of genetically engineered fibroblasts into mice: implications for gene ther ­apy":Science;1987 (May 8);236(4802);p714-8

This approach is known technically as "Transkaryotic implanta ­tion".

1530 "Adult mammalian hepatocyte as target cell for retr ­oviral gene transfer - a model for gene ther ­apy":Somat.Cell.Mol.Genetics;1987 (Jul);13(4);p423-8

1540 "Retroviral....gene transfer in....primates follow ­ing...bone marrow transplantation": Ann.N.Y.Acad.Sc ­i;1987;511(8);p406-17

1550 "A genetically engineereed cell line that produces empty capsids of BA (human) parvovirus":Proc.Nation ­al Acad.Science USA'1989 (Oct);86(19);p7601-5

1560 "Gene transfer: a potential approach to gene therapy for sickle cell dis ­ease":Ann.N.Y.Acad.Sci;1989;(565);p37-43

1565 "Secretion of virus-like gag particles of HIV-2 from recombi ­nant baculovirus-infected insect cells":Virology(US);1990 (Dec);179(2);p874-80

1570 "Gene transfer to primary normal and malignant human hemopoietic progenitors using recombinant retroviru ­ses":Blood;1987(Feb);69(2);p611-7

1580 "Gene transplant therapy in girl 'achieving success ­';Indpendent;20.2.91

1590 "Gene Genies":B.Journal of Pharm.Pract;1990 (Aug);p ­267

Chapter 8

1600 "Hazards of genetic engineering":Nature;1987 (Mar 26);326(6111);p326

also "Stop all further extensions of production using genetic technology":Sygeplejersken;1987 (Sep 2);87(36);p30-1

1600b The use of genetic engineering in veterinary medi ­cine with examples from epidemiology, diagnosis and drug produc ­tion":TierarzH Prax;1990 (Apr);18(2);p99-108

1610 "NATO recommendations for a scientific approach to safety assurance for environemntal introductions of genetically engineered organisms":Rom.Recomb.DNA Tech.Bull;1987(Dec);10(4);p115-22

also "Britain regulates organism release":Nature;1989(Oct 26);341(6244);p681

1620 "Can we guarantee the safety of genetically engin ­eered organ ­isms in the environ ­ment?";Crit.Rev.Biotechnol;1988;(8)1;p85-97

1625 "Agrobacterium in plant diseasem biological disease control and plant genetic engineering":Sci.Prog; 1990;74(293 pt 1);p1-13

1630 "Growth of geentically engineered pseudomonas aenig ­inosa and pseudomonas putida in soil and rhizosphere":Appl.Environ.Microbiol;1989(Dec); 55(1 ­2);p3243-6

1640 "Domesticated bacteria or Andromeda strains?":Bioessays;1987(Aug);7(2);p87

1650 "Model to predict aerial dispersal of bacteria duri ­gn environ ­mental release":Appl.Environ. Microbiol; 1989(Oct);55(10);p2641-7

1656 "Survival of bacteria during aerosolisation":Appl. Environ Microbiol;1990;56(11);p3463-7

1658 "Effect of aerosolisation on subsequent bacterial survivial":Appl.Environ.Microbiol;1990 (Nov);56(11) ­;p3468-72

1660 "Transport of a genetically engineered pseudomonas fluorosens strain through a soil micro ­cosm":Appl.Environ.Microbiol;1990(Feb);56(2); p401-8

1665 "Small scale field testing of the genetically engin ­eered LacZY marker":Regul.Toxicol.Parmacol;1990 (Jun);11(3);p253-61

1670 "Can we guarantee safety of genetically engineered organisms in the environ ­ment?":Crit.Rev.Biotechnol;1988;(8)1;p85-97

1672 "Microcosm for assessing survival of genetically engineered micro-organisms in aquatic environ ­ments":App.Environ.Microbiol;1990 (Apr);56(4);p977-83

1680 "Unauthorised release upsets EPA":Nature;1987(Aug); ­328(6132)p659

also "West German release of altered bacteria causes furor":Naure;1987(Aug);328(6131);p568

1690 "Evolutionary principles and the regulation of engi ­

neereed bacteria":Genome;1989;31(2);p864-9

1700 "Alteration of the Meno virus through genetic engineer ­ing":Nature;1990(Feb 1);343(6257);p474-6.Work being applied to development of a vaccine for foot and mouth disease.

1710 Independent magazine;20.4.91;p30

1720 "Problems of safety in biotechnology.Products of genetic engineering and regulation of work with them":Mil.Gen.Mikrobiol.Virusol;1987(Sep);52(9);p3-10 (Rus ­sian)

1725 "Biosafety considerations in industries with production methods based on the use of recombinant DNA":Scand.J.Work.Environ.Health;1990;(16)2;p85-95

1730 "Production methods and safety evaluation of cytokines":Devel.Biol.Stand;1988;(69);p193-7

1740 "Electroporation as a new technique for producing transgenic fish (rainbow trout)":Cell Differ.Dev;1990(Feb);29(2);p123-8

1750 "Sex preselection":British Journal of Hospital Medi ­cine;1987(Feb);37(2);p149,151-2,154-5

also "Clinical relevance of sex selection tech ­niques":Fertil.Steril;1989(Dec);52(6);p891-905

1760 "Sex preselection in humans by enrichment of X or Y chromosome bearing spermatozoa":Andrologia;1987(Mar-Apr);19(2);p157-60

1770 "Sex preselection in New York city: who chooses which sex and why?":Int.J.Fertil;1989(Sep-Oct);34(5);p353

1780 "Transgenic livestock":J.Reprod.Fertil.Suppl; 1987;34(1-4);p237-50

1790 "Biosynthetic hormone and the opinions of paediatricians":Arch.Fr.Paediatr;1986(Oct);43(8); p617-20

Chapter 9

1800 "Current trends in biomedical ethics in the USA":Bol.of Sant.Panam;1990(May-Jun);108(5-6);p550-5

1810 "The role of human genetics in society: implications for legal involvement":Med.Law (Germany);1990;9(3);p930-8

1820 "Ethical issues in human genome research":FASEBJ;1991;5(1);p55-60

1830 "Potential hazards of biotechnology: the viewpoint from the United Kingdom":Biotechnol.App.Biochem; 1988(Dec);10(6);p483-7

1840 "Britain's genetic manipulation regulations to be extended":Nature;1987 (Oct 1-7);329(6138);p379

also "New advisory board approved":Nature;1989(Oct 26);341(6244);p681

1850 "Ethical issues in human genetic technol ­ogy":Paediatrician;1990;17(2);p100-7

1860 In the US for example:"Genetic engineering guidelines (upgraded)":Microbiol.Sci;1984;1(5); p131-2 h

1870 "Recombination in vivo of pseudorabies vaccine straings to produce new virus strains":Vaccine;1990(Jun);8(3);p286-8

1880 "Prenatal screening: when and for whom?":J.Gen.Intern.Med(US);1990(Sep-Oct);5;p542-6

1890 "Ethics and medical genetics in the United States: a national survey":Am.J.Med.Genet;1988(Apr);29(A);p815-27

Survey contains many other interesting results re. ethical attitudes.

1900 "Primary prevention of colorectal cancer - WHO collaborating centre":Bulletin of WHO;1990;(68)3;p377-85

1910 "New Danish law: human life begins at conception":J. Med.Ethics;1988(Jun);14(2);p77-8

1920 "New reproductive technologies in the treatment of human infertility and genetic dis ­ease":Theor.Med;1990(Jun);11(2);p103-10

1930 "Limits to genetic intervention in humans:somatic and germ line":CIBA Found.Symp;1990;(149);p81-6, 87-9

1940 "Genetic engineering: new law is overdue":Nature;1989(Nov 16);342(6247);p218

also "Genetic engineering; new law needs changes made":Nature;1990(Jan 25);343(6256);p298

"Recombinant DNA regulation.India opts for self con ­trol":Nature;1990(Feb 22);343(8260);p680

"West German commission reports on genetic engineer ­ing":Nature;1987(Feb 5-11);325(6104);p474

1950 "When is cloning lawful?":J.In Vitro Fert.Embryo Transf;1987(Aug);4(A);p198-204

4946 "The technique of polymerase chain reaction - a new diagnostic tool in microbiology and other scientific fields":Int.J.Med.Microbiol;1990(Sep);273(4);p431-54

Early experiments

I am slightly less uneasy about experiments on fertilised eggs or on small balls of cells up to the first week or so of life.Part of this is the need to be consistent.If we are really going to take the moment of conception as our starting point for the protection of human life, then we should do away with the coil as a method of contraception for a start since it's only method of working is to create such an inflamma ­tion of the inside of the uterus that the fertilised egg has not a hope of implant ­ing there some five to seven days after conception. In the strict sense a coil produces a possible abortion every month.

I do not believe it is right to deliberately fertilise human eggs for the purpose of experiments.Nor do I think it is ethical to fertilise more eggs than can properly be implanted into the mother's womb.It is the latter practice which has produced thousands of surplus embryos each year - embryos which can either be washed down the sink or grown for a while in the test-tube. These are all very difficult questions to which there are fewer straight forward answers than you might think.

Humanised germs

I cannot see any ethical objection to using a bit of human genetic code to tell a bacterium what you want it to do.Nor can I see any real difficulty in enhancing the genetic code of plants or animals.It would seem to be a logical outworking of the ancient command given to man by God, recorded in Genesis to be fruitful and subdue the earth. God has given it to us to enjoy and be custodians of.Why shouldn't we make bacteria and viruses work for us - after all they cause us enough problems and misery with the diseases they so often cause us?

However I would draw the line at attempts to give another mammal sig ­nificant parts of the human genetic code.The bible teaches us that when God made us, he made us in his own image.We are not the same as monkeys or baboons and efforts to blur the distinctions genetically I feel are wrong.

Writing good law

Having seen where regulations are needed for safety, or where they nay be desirable ethically we still face a big problem: laws need to be introduced and enforced globally to be effective. The problems in agreeing about what needs to be regulated are huge enough. However the greatesr difficulty of all is finding somegood definitions that will close certain avenues effectively while leaving others open (1940).

A recent example of chaos was what happened in Australia following adoption of the Infertility (Medical Procedures) Act in 1987.This outlawed "cloning".This was meant to prevent human cloning experiments like those we looked at in chapter three of this book.However, it also effectively banned the cloning of individual human cells - nothing short of disastrous.Monoclonal antibodies were in danger of becoming illegal for a start.Calls have therefore been made to amend the Act (1950).

In conclusion then, genetic engineering has the power to change every aspect of our lives, and even the nature of human life itself. It promises us spectacular benefits and brings awesome new problems. It is here already and advances every day. Genetic engineering needs urgent public debate with international regulation, so that the quality of life on earth cn be improved, without threatening human existence.

The Genetic Revolution - free book by Patrick Dixon - published 1995


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